Duissenova T.K. "Development of professional standards - Need of the Hour", "Kazakhstan Today" 17.10.2013
Among the President's instructions to create a society of universal labor focuses on expanding access to decent employment and meet the needs of a developing economy in the labor force. In order to solve this problem and provide training in accordance with the requirements of the modern labor market, will have to make significant changes in the national system of qualifications. The fact that such a national system of qualifications, professional standards, and that needs to be done to implement them, we asked to speak to the Minister of Labour and Social Protection of T.K. Duissenova.
1. Tamara Kassymovna tells us that there is a national system of qualifications?
We defined the topic of conversation is undeniably relevant. In recent years, there have been dramatic changes. Economic progress and the transition to industrial innovation stage accompanied by changes in the structure of the economy, the emergence of new types of production and a significant increase in demand for skilled labor.
However, it is not always be satisfied. Increasing demands on the level of training and practical skills by employers often do not coincide with the professional competencies professionals seeking employment. In this regard, unfilled vacancies persist despite the presence of unemployment in the country.
To bridge this gap, it is necessary with the direct participation of employers to make significant changes, but rather, to create a new system of qualifications and develop professional standards, corresponding to modern requirements of production and to improve the quality of training.
Given this need, and gained international experience this regard, in 2012, the Labor Code of the RK adopted new chapter (10-1) "National Qualifications Framework ". In accordance with her "national qualifications framework (NQF) - a mechanism for regulating the balance of the labor market and qualified people demand employers.
By structure, it comprises:
- National Qualifications framework;
- Sectorial qualifications framework;
- Professional standards;
- Assessment of professional training and demonstration of compliance specialist qualification.
In creating a new system of qualification special role development and implementation of professional standards.
2. In that case, could you please describe the nature of professional standards and the need for their development?
The Head of State in his keynote paper "Social modernization of Kazakhstan: Twenty Steps to a society of universal labor" noted that they should become a "roadmap" for each profession.
The main function to be solved by professional standards throughout the world, is the installation requirements for quality of work, knowledge and skills; convergence of labor and scope of training.
This approach is embodied in the Labour Code of Kazakhstan
The starting point for the development of professional standards is labor market information (demand employer). After all, professional standards must reflect the requirements of the labor market to the skills of workers. This information allows you to determine the main content of the professional standard.
As you develop a professional standard becomes so professional minimum, which must conform to all employees and managers of a particular industry. Businesses and organizations can use it to create its own internal (corporate) standards, employment, or certification of employees.
The objective necessity of the development and implementation of professional standards in Kazakhstan as well as in other countries is caused by constant technological change, the increasing importance of the human factor in increasing the productivity and competitiveness of production. Professional standards are needed to improve the quality of training and the needs of modern production specialists in the profile and the required level of training.
3. If I correctly understand, professional standards should be related to education, training programs and plans?
Of course, between the professional and educational standards cannot be a gap. The education system should be reconstructed to meet new requirements to the employee. In occupational standards reflect those skills and knowledge that professionals must possess a particular profession. Therefore, they should be the basis for curriculum development training, retraining and advanced training of specialists and graduates of educational institutions. From professional schools, along with theoretical training today requires the formation of professional competence in accordance with the requirements of the labor market.
Moreover, and this I would like to emphasize one of the essential components of the national qualifications system becomes a certification system - i.e. assessment and recognition of qualifications and preparedness after receiving special education diploma accredited organizations (Article 138-6 of the Labour Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan).
Assessment and recognition of qualifications should identify how graduate educational institution, his knowledge and skills appropriate to the practical needs of the employer. This will increase the chances of employment, accelerate adaptation experts in the workplace and reduce the cost of their "fine-tuning".
In this case, built next logical chain:
- Monitoring and analysis of the situation on the labor market;
- Development based on demand of employers and their direct participation of professional standards;
- Development of the assessment of professional competence (level of professional training);
- To update the standards of vocational training;
- Training based on new educational standards;
- Independent certification and employment.
4. The state's interest and the associated expectations of positive social change are obvious. Another question: do we need professional standards employers? What benefits they can bring to workers and citizens directly?
Interesting and valid question. The success of any undertaking in social modernization should be based on "...the mechanisms of partnership between government, the private sector and professional associations", a combination of protection of workers with employers in the interest of efficiency.
In this regard, the development and implementation of professional standards - the ideal platform for social dialogue and common interest.
Participation in the development and implementation of professional standards can be used by employers to:
- Specifying their requirements for employees in the performance of his duties, taking into account the specifics of the organizations and industry;
- The development of personnel management (selection and recruitment, job descriptions, job billing, establishing pay systems, assessment and certification of person, systems development personnel motivation, etc.);
Ultimately, this will increase the efficiency of production and, consequently, increase profits by engaging in the production and use of well-trained professionals.
For a citizen professional standards will guide the choice of profession, scope, and career planning. It will be clear what functions which correspond to the complexity of a particular profession, as an employee of a move to ensure their professional growth, knowledge and skills which he does not get this.
Professional standards allow us to establish objective criteria for the evaluation of employees, depending on which will be fixed wages.
5. Tamara Kassymovna tells us to applies whether standardization of professional activities in other countries?
Over the past twenty years due to the significant technological shifts, and the increasing demand for skilled labor training abroad has been given special attention.
In more than 100 countries (UK, Germany, USA, Canada, Japan, Australia, Eastern Europe and the former Soviet republics and other countries) are working for the development and implementation of national qualifications frameworks and standards. Analysis of the experience of developed countries shows more thorough systematization of diverse professional characteristics and requirements of their constant renewal in accordance with the needs of the labor market.
Much attention is paid to this in the Russian Federation. In the period from 2010 to create the necessary legal framework prepared methodological support and launched an immediate development of professional standards. In an interview with our colleagues noted that already developed 69 standards. It is planned to develop the 800 standards and do this job for two years.
International experience has certainly taken into account and, if possible, adapted to our conditions. Without going into details, I want to note the usefulness of:
- A new understanding of "qualification" in the western model. Before that she was reduced to the degree and type of professional training, the presence of his knowledge, skills and abilities required for the performance of certain work. Today qualification is increasingly associated with the competencies that exist in humans and that it can be used effectively in employment;
- Establish a strong bond with the production of professional training;
- Involving all stakeholders to work on the development and use of professional standards, the rational allocation of powers between them, enhancing the role of employers in the process.
- Algorithm design, format and use of professional standards;
- Institutional reform.
6. As you mentioned, one of the innovations of foreign experience is the transition to professional standards modeling based on competences. Could you please describe this approach?
Professional competence - rather capacious concept that includes not only the professional abilities and skills (job function within the office, vocation, profession, qualifications), but also the ability to act independently in new situations in solving professional problems.
Model of competency-based qualifications before the other was developed in the 80s in the UK. In accordance with it in a single system of production qualifications emphasis on the ability to apply knowledge, understanding and skills in accordance with the required standards.
These include: problem solving, and with changing requirements of the labor market.
Currently, training, competency based, is widespread in the EU.
7. Let's go back to our reality. What order to develop professional standards defined by the legislation of Kazakhstan? How is this work practically?
In accordance with the Labour Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan (Article 138-5) professional standards developed " authorized bodies respective spheres of activity in conjunction with industry associations of employers and trade associations of workers" on the basis of guidelines and rules developed by the Ministry of Labour and Social Protection and concerted "with national associations of employers and national associations of workers."
Adoption of professional standards by authorized government bodies respective spheres of activity in coordination with the MLSP.
For practical standardization of professional activity
- Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan approved a plan to develop a national system of phased qualifications' (PDNQ from 18.06.2013 number 616), for the development of professional standards in 2013 allocated the appropriate means.
- Authorized state bodies of the number of pre- trained professionals - employees are specialized enterprises Industry advice and work expert working groups;
- Ministry of Labour and Social Protection drafted and approved a development methodology and design of professional standards and its layout, design rules, reviewing, testing and application of professional standards; "Five Steps to develop professional standards." To provide guidance and advice to public authorities in the Ministry established a working group to build a list of popular specialties and development of professional standards, which consists of experts recommended "Samruk- Kazyna" and MES.
Under the Loan Agreement between the Republic of Kazakhstan and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development on July 2, 2011 The Project Management Unit of the Ministry of Education is developing a methodology for the development of sectorial qualifications frameworks and professional standards and professional standards directly 147 (already drafted more than eighty professional standards).
MLSP today agreed and approved by state bodies 52 industry professional standards (2 - for the tourism and hospitality, 5 - for education, 7 spheres of agriculture, transport 4 (3 directions: w/d, water and road), 25 industry or trade (energy, geology, metallurgy and machinery), 15 oil and gas industry.
Until the end of the year, taking into account the requests submitted by the authorized bodies is expected to develop 176 professional standards totaling 188 million KZT.
Work has begun on the creation of independent centers demonstrate proficiency.
Methodological assistance to industry associations in this case has a holding "Kasіpqor." Developed institutional model independent verification of qualification and training requirements for a number of specialties.
8. Will include changes in professional standards or they should remain stable?
To perform its functions , national professional standards must be flexible and open to change, along with changes in the content of modern professions and occupations and the expansion of the list of requirements relating to personal skills in this or that position.
Certain changes will be made to professional standards and the establishment of common labor market and a unified educational space within the Common Economic Space. During meetings with the leadership of the Ministry of Labour of the Russian Federation (2013) was understood and agreed intention to coordinate the standardization of professional activity.
9. Submitted by you knew qualification system is not created in the "open field." Until now, many favor of a single wage-rate Soviet-style, making them some adjustments. What do you think the difference between them?
Professional standards dictated by today modern new labor market and act as "order" of employers and whereas before they were formed centrally.
Further, the new professional standards developed by large groups of professions. If acting directories contain more than five thousand professions and positions, it is planned to develop standards around 800-900.
Another difference is the absence in the previous edition of the directory to educational standards. In addition, new professional and educational standards will focus on professional competencies.
Unlike previous conditions professional standards will be influenced by globalization and integration processes reflect.
10. What do you think the problems complicate the development of professional standards? And is supposed to solve them?
In the standardization of professional activity, as in all transition processes to overcome the inertia of the existing traditions of centralized formation of professional standards and professional education.
It should be noted the lack of consolidation of employers by industry, the lack of interaction between enterprises and educational institutions.
In this regard, additional efforts for inter-sectorial coordination and encouraging the active participation of all stakeholders in this process, further improving the regulatory framework methodical development of professional standards and training in this sphere of activity.