" The main reasons and three components of the pension reform," the newspaper "Time" from November 26, 2013.
The buzz around the unpopular decision of the people to raise the retirement age for women subsided - President reform postponed until 2018. Inflame passions around whether the topic in four years with a new force, still unknown, but what you need to prepare for this, it is clear to everyone. Willingness to change - is primarily an understanding of why this is needed if at all. So what is this frightening many "modernization of the pension system"? Is it really scary and what is its essence? Let's try to figure it out.
Why need conversion
Official speeches responsible persons known: the ongoing transformation of the pension system of Kazakhstan, in fact, are only its modernization. Pension system will remain layered. The state will continue payment of a guaranteed them the so-called basic pension to continue the current procedure for pensions under the joint system , but the main emphasis will be placed on the need for further development and improvement of the funded pillar.
To modernize this is the storage component , needed to take a few steps: first, to accumulate assets of accumulative pension funds in a single - NPF, secondly, to consider issues of improving occupational pension system, and thirdly, to introduce a phased increase in the retirement age women.
Each of these steps is warranted.
Creation of a single pension fund will:
Ensure proper accounting of the proceeds of mandatory pension contributions and the use of pension assets;
Improve investment strategies and increase the profitability of pension assets, reduce administrative costs;
Ensure greater transparency in the formation and movement of the pension savings of the population.
The second step concerns the employees engaged in hazardous and dangerous jobs. Transformations in the direction of modernization of the pension system is needed because the existing model does not compensate for the risks associated with special conditions.
Already clear that a voluntary professional pension scheme people engaged in hazardous working conditions, has not received much development. She was supposed to provide an increase in pension savings through voluntary professional pension contributions and allow employees to retire when they reach 53 -55- year-olds. Currently, however, participants in such systems only about 4000 people, and their accumulation is only slightly more than 100 million KZT.
Now in an updated model of the pension system, taking into account the specifics of the people involved in the special working conditions, with January 1, 2014 will be a transition to compulsory professional pension contributions.
This means that individual pension accounts professionals working in hazardous industries, will come 15% of the gross salary, while 10 % - of the wage fund of the employee, 5% - at the expense of the employer. This will allow for continuous participation in the system (at least 30 years) and regular contributions (monthly, i.e. 12 times a year) to save enough money for an early retirement.
At the same load on the employer does not increase, because the amount of contributions to occupational pension schemes will be taken into account when taxing businesses.
Also, again, remain unchanged:
1) Payment of basic pension;
2) Joint (labor) in the presence of pension seniority on January 1, 1998 for at least 6 months;
3) Insurance payments from the State Social Insurance Fund in the event of a total loss of ability to work until normal retirement age;
4) Insurance payments due to disability from the industrial injury and occupational diseases.
And now that so painfully perceived by many, not only representatives of the weaker sex - to raise the retirement age of women to men.
Unification of the retirement age in our country primarily dealt with gradual - for objective reasons (life goes on, and the time, as you know, is not in place) - decreasing seniority of women as of January 1, 1998, which is taken into account when calculation of the cumulative pension. More than 12 % of the women who applied for a pension in 2012, no longer had full seniority accumulated by January 1, 1998. By 2018, full -time on January 1, 1998 will not be nearly everyone retiring women.
This means that those who will retire after 2018, payments will consist of:
Joint (labor) pension from the state budget, the corresponding seniority on January 1, 1998;
As a result, it is estimated that the amount to the pension for women and will not exceed 40% of the average monthly earnings of the former already in this decade.
In such circumstances, raising the retirement age for women is becoming a necessity and not offered for budget savings and to increase the length of their participation in the pension system and, consequently , increased retirement savings.
Well, where we do not?
The global trend of an aging population has become a serious problem, including in terms of social welfare.
Pension systems of the developed countries, which provide ample comfortable standard of living for its senior citizens (where pensioners can afford quality health care, travel and much more), have a fairly rigid framework. For example, in most European countries come to retire at the age of 65-70 years.
Moreover, to date, in the crises-ridden Europe is discussing the possibility of raising the retirement age to 70 and even 75 years. Speaking more specifically, the retirement age is increased or its plan to increase in several countries: UK, Germany, France, Sweden, South Korea, Czech Republic, Azerbaijan, Ukraine, Estonia, and others.
In the UK generally established age limit of retirement - 60 years old, the same age for retirement women go out in Austria, Malta, Lithuania, Croatia . In Luxembourg , Switzerland, Sweden , Italy, Finland statutory retirement age - 65 years old and does not depend on the employee's gender . In Norway, both men and women have the right to retire at only 67 years old. In the 18 EU countries the retirement age of women to equalize the retirement age of men by 2020. According to Western experts, raising the retirement age will reduce the demographic burden on working people and youth.
Russian experts also raising the retirement age for women to 63 years is considered a necessary step not only for the reasons stated in the West - to prevent the growth dependency ratio due to the aging population, as well as expanding opportunities to engage in the labor market additional manpower by extending the economically active age groups, to optimize public spending.
Prerequisites for raising the retirement age for women in the fact that the life expectancy of women more than men.
Thus, raising the retirement age for women if the necessary environment and opportunities (this applies to employment, medical care, financial literacy, improve services funded pension system, improve the profitability of savings) really can and will work on the women themselves. But while women may reserve the right to retire earlier deadlines, if there are such grounds as raising five children and more work on the production of harmful, difficult working conditions, disability or living in ecologically unfavorable conditions.