Information distributed in some mass media that Kazakhstan citizens can become infected with HIV through transfusion of donor blood is untrue. Since 2007 in the Republic there are no reported cases of transmission of HIV infection due to blood transfusion.
The system of ensuring infectious safety in blood service represents the whole complex of protective measures.
At the first stage is carried out an inspection through informational database of the donors and individuals, aside from the donation. So, in 2014 at verification of data were not allowed to donorship 7,9 thousand people or 14% of the total number of people set aside from donations (56,5 thousand people).
At the second stage potential donors pass obligatory confidential questioning for the purpose of identification of factors of "risky behavior" – drug addiction, the random unprotected sexual relations, nonconventional sexual orientation, etc.
After that the potential donor goes for survey to the therapist during which the doctor analyzes the questionnaire, asks additional questions. Besides, during conversation the doctor provides information on blood donorship, its possible contraindications and advantage, explains why it is impossible to become the donor from one's own interests (to be examined, improve the health, etc.), advises by results of the analyses conducted prior to admission (a blood type, a hemoglobin, biochemical indicators). Common causes of disqualification of a therapist on the inspection results are fever, respiratory phenomenon, blood pressure and heart rate, skin and mucous rash, paleness, caused by low hemoglobin, low weight, the presence of "fresh" tattoos, the existence of serious systemic diseases.
To accept the potential donor it is allocated from 8 up to 12 minutes during which the doctor makes the decision on the admission or rejection. In 2014 after reception at the doctor were not allowed to donorship 33,4 thousand people or 59% of the total number of people set aside from donations (56,5 thousand people).
The most important stage of inspection of the donor is laboratory diagnostics. Blood of donors for researches on transfusion infections draws during donation, results of research are obtained prior to the issuance of blood components in the clinic.
At preparation of donor blood and its components are used effective hardware methods – donor plasmapheresis, donor cytapheresis (preparation of blood cells - erythrocytes, thrombocytes, granulocytes, peripheral stem cells), being absolutely safe.
In Kazakhstan is carried out two-stage screening of donor blood on markers of transfusion infections according to the international standard. At the first stage is carried out the immunologic analysis (searching of antibodies and antigens of pathogens infections). All negative blood samples are sent to the second stage – the molecular and genetic analysis (PCR-research, searching of sites of pathogen genome) that completely excludes probability of transfer of infections through donor blood.
For increase of effectiveness of screening in Kazakhstan is made the unprecedented decision– there is normatively fixed the requirement of carrying out researches of donor blood on completely automated inventory which manipulates the reagents and samples of blood, and completely excludes influence of a human factor on results of researches. The requirement to archive for 3 years blood samples from each donation for carrying out arbitration researches in case of claims to work of the medical organizations is also fixed.
The automated information program in the blood centers is arranged in such a way that does not allow to let out a blood component in clinics without receiving results of laboratory researches (blocked by printing labels on blood component).
Along with it, additional processing methods of blood components– quarantine, virus inactivation, leucofiltration are also applied.
It should be noted that when receiving by blood centers of primarily-positive results of screening of donated blood for HIV-infection blood samples are sent to the regional and city AIDS centers. For each donor with a confirmed result on request of OGC AIDS Blood Centers represent materials for epidemiological investigation (information on the donor, the address, marital status, the conclusion of the therapist, results of laboratory researches, etc). All components of blood received from the infected donor are written off and utilized. In each revealed HIV infection case information is transferred officially to the blood centers. Data on the infected persons are brought in informational database of donors for lifelong rejection from donorship.
As we have informed, according to the current legislation, everyone has the right to be a blood donor. In this regard the donor in Kazakhstan can become both the citizen of RK, and the foreigner, it is the international practice. On this same basis shall not be denied the blood donation to the nonresident inhabitant in any region of the country.