Due to the wide vaccination coverage over the past 25 years, the incidence of diphtheria in Kazakhstan decreased by 30 times. Due to the wide vaccination coverage over the past 25 years, the incidence of diphtheria in Kazakhstan decreased by 30 times. In 2015 there was not a single case of diphtheria, 30 cases in 1991 (incidence rate per 100 thousand population was 0.18), among children under 14 years – 8 cases (the indicator on 100 thousand population – 0,15).
Diphtheria is a severe infectious disease that is transmitted by airborne droplets. Once on the mucous membrane of the throat, nose, upper respiratory tract, diphtheria Bacillus multiplies rapidly, and secretes a special poison – diphtheria toxin that affects the heart, blood vessels and Central nervous system.
The disease begins with General malaise and fever, pain when swallowing. Often the first symptoms people take for a sore throat, self-medicate, which is very dangerous and can lead to serious consequences. Diphtheria like no other infection gives many complications, such as paralysis of the heart muscle, the respiratory muscles and diaphragm, soft palate, facial muscles, neck, torso and extremities. When this infection with a high mortality, die each year from 10 to 20% of patients.
The main method of preventing the disease is vaccination. For immunization used complex vaccine, contributing to the development of immunity against diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus. Vaccination starts at 2 months and continues for up to 60 years in accordance with the National immunization schedule RK. Failure to vaccinate can lead to the accumulation of susceptible individuals and cause outbreaks.