Due to the wide vaccination coverage, improve water quality and improve health literacy of citizens over the past 25 years in Kazakhstan, the incidence of hepatitis A among children have been reduced in 308,5 times. In 2015, registered 140 cases of hepatitis A among children under 14 years of age (indicator per 100 thousand population amounted to 3.08), against 43201 cases in 1991 (indicator per 100 thousand population – 807). Also in 2015, was 358 cases of hepatitis A among adult population (incidence rate per 100 thousand population of 2.07), against 55662 cases in 1991 (indicator per 100 thousand population – 331,1).
Hepatitis A (Botkin's disease) is acute infectious disease of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus that is spread mainly through consumption of the uninfected (or unvaccinated) person food or water contaminated by the feces of infected person. The disease is closely associated with lack of safe water, inadequate sanitation and poor personal hygiene.
Most often, hepatitis A sick children who infected through dirty hands. That is why this form of hepatitis called "the disease of dirty hands".
The average incubation period is 35 days (range 7-50 days).
99% of people do recover, but 1% can be fatal. Complications are typical for adults shall be recorded in individuals with any liver disease of viral and non-viral etiology.
To prevent infection it is necessary to observe rules of personal hygiene, drink only purified water as well as wash fruits and vegetables with boiled water.
In addition, one of the methods of prevention of diseases are immunization. According to epidemiological indications the vaccination against hepatitis A available to children in regions with a high incidence at the expense of local executive bodies.