In order to create a nuclear potential that ensured strategic military parity between the USSR and the USA, the USSR Council of Ministers Decree of November 14, 1946 created the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site.
The landfill, located at the junction of the East Kazakhstan, Pavlodar and Karaganda regions, occupies an area of 18.5 thousand square meters. km.
During the test site (1949-1989), 468 nuclear tests were conducted on its territory, in which less than 616 nuclear and thermonuclear devices were blown up, including 125 atmospheric, 343 nuclear explosions under the ground. Dozens of hydronuclear and hydrodynamic tests were also carried out.
According to various experts, about 1.3 million people were exposed to radiation. About 600 thousand of them live in Kazakhstan today.
On August 29, 1991, by the decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site was closed.
Tests of nuclear weapons, conducted for 40 years at the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site, caused irreparable damage to human health and the environment, caused an increase in the overall morbidity and mortality of the population. The entire territory of the former Semipalatinsk and the adjacent areas of the Pavlodar, East Kazakhstan and Karaganda oblasts are recognized as a zone of ecological disaster.
The remote consequences of nuclear testing, which are transmitted from generation to generation, are increasingly detrimental.
In 1992, the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan "On the social protection of citizens who suffered as a result of nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk test nuclear facility" was adopted in order to eliminate the consequences of nuclear tests, which require the implementation of a set of measures for the treatment, rehabilitation, social protection of the population and the socio-economic development of the affected territory polygon ".
The Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan dated December 18, 1992 "On the social protection of citizens who suffered as a result of nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk test nuclear test range" to the population affected by nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk test site:
payment of a one-time state monetary compensation to citizens who lived and lived from 1949 to 1990 in zones exposed to radiation effects during nuclear tests. Only for the period from 2003 to 2016 a one-time state monetary compensation was paid to more than 642.3 thousand citizens, who lived and lived in the areas exposed to radiation pollution, in the amount of 10.4 billion tenge.
The population living in the territory affected by radiation exposure, depending on the area of residence, has the right to additional pay for 1 to 2 MCI, an annual additional paid leave of 5 to 12 calendar days.
At the same time, the costs of additional pay and additional paid leave are shared by all organizations.
So, according to official data, in recent years, about 340 thousand citizens are paid an additional monthly salary, and additional paid holidays are provided.
Citizens living in the zones of extreme and maximum radiation risks who have retired before January 1, 1998 are paid a supplement to pensions.
There is a right to receive pension payments earlier than the generally established retirement age for citizens who lived in zones of extreme and maximum radiation risk during the period from 1949 to 1963 for at least 5 years, for men after reaching the age of 50 years, for women - 45 years.
Individuals who participated directly in nuclear tests and exercises, irrespective of other social payments, are paid monthly a special state allowance in the amount of 6.19 MCI (in 2017 - 14046 tenge), and persons who became disabled due to the radiation impact from the nuclear test at the Semipalatinsk test nuclear test site in the amount of 7.55 MCI (in 2017 - 17 131 tenge), they are also paid state social benefits in an increased amount (disabled first group 51 609 tenge, disabled second 41 5 81 tenge, invalids of the third group 32 042 tenge).
Considerable attention is paid to the social protection of women of childbearing age and children living in territories exposed to nuclear testing, who are given prolonged maternity leave (170 calendar days with normal delivery and 184 days in cases of complicated birth or at birth of two or more children).
Children and adolescents under the age of 18 living in areas affected by nuclear tests are entitled to free medical treatment (for medical reasons) in sanatoriums and health institutions.
For the purpose of in-depth study of the health status of the population affected and living on the territories of radiation exposure, the Research Institute of Radiation Medicine and Ecology has been functioning in the city of Semey since 1991. Annually more than 900 people receive specialized medical care from highly qualified specialists of the Institute, about 4 thousand people undergo comprehensive medical examinations every year.
In addition, the financing of health organizations located in the affected areas is carried out in an increased amount by applying environmental factors to tariffs for their medical services.
To ensure the personal registration of citizens affected by nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk test site, the State Scientific Automated Medical Register has been functioning since 2003 on the basis of the Institute.
To date, the register has personal passport and registration and medical data more than 317 thousand people