On August 29, 1991, by the decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site was closed.
According to various experts, about 1.3 million people were exposed to radiation. About 600 thousand of them live in Kazakhstan today.
In order to eliminate the consequences of nuclear tests, in 1992 the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan "On Social Protection of Citizens Affected by Nuclear Tests at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site" was adopted.
According to the Law, victims of nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk test site, citizens, namely those who lived and lived from 1949 to 1990 in zones affected by radiation testing, provided for a one-time state monetary compensation.
Over the period from 2003 to 2017, compensation was paid to more than 700.6 thousand citizens in the amount of 11.4 billion tenge.
The population living in the territory affected by radiation exposure, depending on the area of residence, has the right to additional pay for 1 to 2 MCI, an annual additional paid leave of 5 to 14 calendar days.
Also, citizens living in the zones of extreme and maximum radiation risks who have retired before January 1, 1998, are paid a supplement to pensions.
There is a right to receive pension payments earlier than the generally established retirement age for citizens who lived in the zones of extreme and maximum radiation risk during the period from 1949 to 1963 for at least 5 years, for men at the age of 50 years, for women - 45 years.
Persons who participated directly in nuclear tests and exercises, irrespective of other social payments, are paid monthly a special state allowance in the amount of 6.19 MCI, in 2018 - 14,887 tenge. Persons who became invalids as a result of the radiation impact of a nuclear weapon test at the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site in the amount of 7.55 MCI, in 2018 - 18,158 tenge, they also receive state social benefits in an increased amount. So the disabled of the first group - 79 479 tenge, the disabled of the second group - 67 882 tenge, the disabled of the third group - 56 851 tenge.
Particular attention is paid to the social protection of women of childbearing age and children living in territories affected by nuclear testing. They are granted prolonged maternity leave - 170 calendar days with normal delivery and 184 days - in cases of complicated childbirth or at the birth of two or more children.
Children and adolescents under the age of 18 living in areas affected by nuclear tests are entitled to free medical treatment (for medical reasons) in sanatoriums and health institutions.
In addition, since 1991, the Research Institute of Radiation Medicine and Ecology has been operating in the city of Semey, where more than 900 people receive specialized medical care annually, and about 4,000 people undergo comprehensive medical examinations every year.
To ensure the personal registration of citizens affected by nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk test site, the State Scientific Automated Medical Register has been functioning since 2003 on the basis of the Institute.
To date, the register has personal passport and registration and medical data of more than 353 thousand people.